The cause of the most lethal human malaria, chloroquine resistance is linked to multiple mutations in Pf CRT, a protein that likely functions as a transporter in the parasite’s digestive vacuole membrane. Rapid diagnostic assays for Pf CRT mutations are already employed as surveillance tools for drug resistance. Side effects of long term plaquenil use Plaquenil causing muscle weakness Antimalarials hydroxychloroquine Chloroquine is used to prevent or treat malaria caused by mosquito bites in countries where malaria is common. Malaria parasites can enter the body through these mosquito bites, and then live in body tissues such as red blood cells or the liver. Chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum first developed independently in three to four areas in Southeast Asia, Oceania, and South America in the late 1950s and early 1960s. Since then, chloroquine resistance has spread to nearly all areas of the world where falciparum malaria is transmitted. Resistant P. vivax was not reported until 1989 in Papua New Guinea 9, although this species accounts for roughly as many cases of malaria as P. falciparum and was exposed to similar high levels of chloroquine pressure. Today, resistant P. vivax is present in several regions of Southeast Asia 10. These studies suggest chloroquine resistance arose in ⩾4 distinct geographic foci and substantiate an important role of immunity in the outcomes of resistant infections after chloroquine treatment. Investigation of the resistance mechanisms and of the role of immunity in therapeutic outcomes will support new approaches to drugs that can take the place of chloroquine or augment its efficiency Early in the 20th century, intense demands for an effective quinine substitute launched the discovery and evaluation of a series of organic compounds (beginning with methylene blue), which led to pamaquine and quinacrine after World War I and ultimately produced chloroquine in 1934 [1, 2]. Here, we review recent field studies that support the central role of Pf CRT mutations in chloroquine resistance. Chloroquine resistant areas ASW-2F ARALEN® CHLOROQUINE PHOSPHATE, USP, Drug Resistance in the Malaria-Endemic World - CDC Plaquenil antibioticPlaquenil and methotrexate for sjogren's syndromePlaquenil wikiPregnancy hydroxychloroquineHydroxychloroquine sulfate and psoriasis Chloroquine resistance was first reported in both South America and South East Asia in late 1950s. Since then chloroquine resistant strains have spread throughout the ranges where the conditions are favorable for the development of the parasite especially in the regions of sub-Saharan Africa 6. Chloroquine Resistance in Plasmodium falciparum - microbewiki. Chloroquine-Resistant Malaria The Journal of Infectious Diseases.. Chloroquine Resistance in Plasmodium falciparum Malaria.. Chloroquine is used for the prophylaxis of malaria in areas of the world where the risk of chloroquine-resistant falciparum malaria is still low. It is also used with proguanil when chloroquine-resistant falciparum malaria is present. However, this combination may not be ideal. ANSWER from Editor YES. Malaria is a risk in all rural areas of the country below 1,000 meters of altitude anything below 3300 feet. Rangoon/Yangon and Mandalay do not have malaria. Recombinant clones expressing pfcrt alleles from the chloroquine-resistant lines Dd2, K76I, and 7G8 all had 50% inhibitory concentration IC 50 values in the range of 100 to 150 nM. These IC 50 values were typically 70 to 90% of those observed with the nontransformed chloroquine-resistant lines.